Networking and protocols

This section describes configuration of network interfaces and protocols. Please keep in mind that DNS resolvers act as DNS server and DNS client at the same time, and that these roles require different configuration.

This picture illustrates different actors involved DNS resolution process, supported protocols, and clarifies what we call server configuration and client configuration.


Attribution: Icons by Bernar Novalyi from the Noun Project

For resolver’s clients the resolver itself acts as a DNS server.

After receiving a query the resolver will attempt to find answer in its cache. If the data requested by resolver’s client is not available in resolver’s cache (so-called cache-miss) the resolver will attempt to obtain the data from servers upstream (closer to the source of information), so at this point the resolver itself acts like a DNS client and will send DNS query to other servers.

By default the Knot Resolver works in recursive mode, i.e. the resolver will contact authoritative servers on the Internet. Optionally it can be configured in forwarding mode, where cache-miss queries are forwarded to another DNS resolver for processing.

Server (communication with clients)

Client (retrieving answers from servers)

Following chapters describe basic configuration of how resolver retrieves data from other (upstream) servers. Data processing is also affected by configured policies, see chapter Policy, access control, data manipulation for more advanced usage.

DNS protocol tweaks