Building from sources


Latest up-to-date packages for various distribution can be obtained from web

Knot Resolver is written for UNIX-like systems using modern C standards. Beware that some 64-bit systems with LuaJIT 2.1 may be affected by a problem – Linux on x86_64 is unaffected but Linux on aarch64 is.

$ git clone --recursive



This section lists basic requirements. Individual modules might have additional build or runtime dependencies.

The following dependencies are needed to build and run Knot Resolver:




build only

meson >= 0.49

build only [1]

C and C++ compiler

build only [2]


build only [3]

libknot 3.0.2+

Knot DNS libraries

LuaJIT 2.0+

Embedded scripting language

libuv 1.7+

Multiplatform I/O and services


Memory-mapped database for cache



There are also optional packages that enable specific functionality in Knot Resolver:


Needed for




Improve long-term memory consumption.



DNS over HTTPS support.



Systemd watchdog support.



Linux capabilities: support dropping them.


config tests

Number base encoding/decoding for Lua.



HTTP/2 client/server for Lua.


some lua modules


unit tests

Unit testing framework.


proxyv2 test

DNS proxy server



Generating API documentation.

Sphinx and sphinx_rtd_theme


Building this documentation.



Generating this documentation in Info format.



Exposing Doxygen API doc to Sphinx.

libprotobuf 3.0+


Protocol Buffers support for dnstap.

libprotobuf-c 1.0+


C bindings for Protobuf.

libfstrm 0.2+


Frame Streams data transport protocol.



Syntax and static analysis checker for Lua.



Syntax and static analysis checker for C.



Code coverage analysis for Lua modules.

Packaged dependencies


Some build dependencies can be found in home:CZ-NIC:knot-resolver-build.

On reasonably new systems most of the dependencies can be resolved from packages, here’s an overview for several platforms.

  • Debian/Ubuntu - Current stable doesn’t have new enough Meson and libknot. Use repository above or build them yourself. Fresh list of dependencies can be found in Debian control file in our repo, search for “Build-Depends”.

  • CentOS/Fedora/RHEL/openSUSE - Fresh list of dependencies can be found in RPM spec file in our repo, search for “BuildRequires”.

  • FreeBSD - when installing from ports, all dependencies will install automatically, corresponding to the selected options.

  • Mac OS X - the dependencies can be obtained from Homebrew formula.



Knot Resolver uses Meson Build system. Shell snippets below should be sufficient for basic usage but users unfamiliar with Meson Build might want to read introductory article Using Meson.

Following example script will:

  • create new build directory named build_dir

  • configure installation path /tmp/kr

  • enable static build (to allow installation to non-standard path)

  • build Knot Resolver

  • install it into the previously configured path

$ meson setup build_dir --prefix=/tmp/kr --default-library=static
$ ninja -C build_dir
$ ninja install -C build_dir

At this point you can execute the newly installed binary using path /tmp/kr/sbin/kresd.


When compiling on OS X, creating a shared library is currently not possible when using luajit package from Homebrew due to #37169.

Build options

It’s possible to change the compilation with build options. These are useful to packagers or developers who wish to customize the daemon behaviour, run extended test suites etc. By default, these are all set to sensible values.

For complete list of build options create a build directory and run:

$ meson setup build_dir
$ meson configure build_dir

To customize project build options, use -Doption=value when creating a build directory:

$ meson setup build_dir -Ddoc=enabled

… or change options in an already existing build directory:

$ meson configure build_dir -Ddoc=enabled

Customizing compiler flags

If you’d like to use customize the build, see meson’s built-in options. For hardening, see b_pie.

For complete control over the build flags, use --buildtype=plain and set CFLAGS, LDFLAGS when creating the build directory with meson command.


The following is a non-comprehensitve lists of various tests that can be found in this repo. These can be enabled by the build system.

Unit tests

The unit tests depend on cmocka and can easily be executed after compilation. They are enabled by default (if cmocka is found).

$ ninja -C build_dir
$ meson test -C build_dir --suite unit

Postinstall tests

There following tests require a working installation of kresd. The binary kresd found in $PATH will be tested. When testing through meson, $PATH is modified automatically and you just need to make sure to install kresd first.

$ ninja install -C build_dir

Config tests

Config tests utilize the kresd’s lua config file to execute arbitrary tests, typically testing various modules, their API etc.

To enable these tests, specify -Dconfig_tests=enabled option for meson. Multiple dependencies are required (refer to meson’s output when configuring the build dir).

$ meson configure build_dir -Dconfig_tests=enabled
$ ninja install -C build_dir
$ meson test -C build_dir --suite config

Extra tests

The extra tests require a large set of additional dependencies and executing them outside of upstream development is probably redundant.

To enable these tests, specify -Dextra_tests=enabled option for meson. Multiple dependencies are required (refer to meson’s output when configuring the build dir). Enabling extra_tests automatically enables config tests as well.

Integration tests

The integration tests are using Deckard, the DNS test harness. The tests simulate specific DNS scenarios, including authoritative server and their responses. These tests rely on linux namespaces, refer to Deckard documentation for more info.

$ meson configure build_dir -Dextra_tests=enabled
$ ninja install -C build_dir
$ meson test -C build_dir --suite integration


The pytest suite is designed to spin up a kresd instance, acquire a connected socket, and then performs any tests on it. These tests are used to test for example TCP, TLS and its connection management.

$ meson configure build_dir -Dextra_tests=enabled
$ ninja install -C build_dir
$ meson test -C build_dir --suite pytests

Useful meson commands

It’s possible to run only specific test suite or a test.

$ meson test -C build_dir --help
$ meson test -C build_dir --list
$ meson test -C build_dir --no-suite postinstall
$ meson test -C build_dir integration.serve_stale


To check for documentation dependencies and allow its installation, use -Ddoc=enabled. The documentation doesn’t build automatically. Instead, target doc must be called explicitly.

$ meson configure build_dir -Ddoc=enabled
$ ninja -C build_dir doc


Released tarballs are available from

To make a release tarball from git, use the following command. The

$ ninja -C build_dir dist

It’s also possible to make a development snapshot tarball:

$ ./scripts/


Recommended build options for packagers:

  • --buildtype=release for default flags (optimization, asserts, …). For complete control over flags, use plain and see Customizing compiler flags.

  • --prefix=/usr to customize prefix, other directories can be set in a similar fashion, see meson setup --help

  • -Dsystemd_files=enabled for systemd unit files

  • -Ddoc=enabled for offline documentation (see Documentation)

  • -Dinstall_kresd_conf=enabled to install default config file

  • -Dclient=enabled to force build of kresc

  • -Dunit_tests=enabled to force build of unit tests


It’s recommended to use the upstream system unit files. If any customizations are required, drop-in files should be used, instead of patching/changing the unit files themselves.

To install systemd unit files, use the -Dsystemd_files=enabled build option.

To support enabling services after boot, you must also link to

ln -s ../ /usr/lib/systemd/system/

Trust anchors

If the target distro has externally managed (read-only) DNSSEC trust anchors or root hints use this:

  • -Dkeyfile_default=/usr/share/dns/root.key

  • -Droot_hints=/usr/share/dns/root.hints

  • -Dmanaged_ta=disabled

In case you want to have automatically managed DNSSEC trust anchors instead, set -Dmanaged_ta=enabled and make sure both keyfile_default file and its parent directories are writable by kresd process (after package installation!).

Docker image

Visit for instructions how to run the container.

For development, it’s possible to build the container directly from your git tree:

$ docker build -t knot-resolver .